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The Battle of Red Cliffs , otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi , was a decisive naval battle in the winter of AD —9 at the end of the Han dynasty , about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.
Liu Bei and Sun Quan frustrated Cao Cao's effort to conquer the land south of the Yangtze River and reunite the territory of the Eastern Han dynasty.
The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, gave them control of the Yangtze and provided a line of defence that was the basis for the later creation of the two southern states of Shu Han and Eastern Wu.
By the early third century, the Han dynasty, which had ruled China for almost four centuries albeit with a year interruption , dividing the dynasty into its Western and Eastern periods , was crumbling.
Emperor Xian had been a political figurehead since , with no control over the actions of the various warlords controlling their respective territories.
One of the most powerful warlords in China was Cao Cao, who, by , had unified northern China and retained total control of the North China Plain.
He then completed a successful campaign against the Wuhuan in the winter of the same year, thus securing his northern frontier. Upon his return in , he was appointed Chancellor , a position that granted him absolute authority over the entire imperial government de Crespigny , 6n.
Shortly afterwards, in the autumn of , his army began a southern campaign Eikenberry ; de Crespigny The Yangtze River in the area of Jing Province was key to the success of this strategy.
If Cao Cao was to have any hope of reuniting the sundered Han empire, he had to achieve naval control of the middle Yangtze and command the strategic naval base at Jiangling as a means of access to the southern region de Crespigny Two warlords controlled the regions of the Yangtze that were key to Cao Cao's success: Liu Biao , the Governor of Jing Province, controlled the area west of the mouth of the Han River roughly encompassing the area around the city of Xiakou and all territory south of that region , and Sun Quan, who controlled the river east of the Han and the southeastern territories abutting it de Crespigny A third ally, Liu Bei, was living in refuge with Liu Biao at the garrison in Fancheng , having fled from the northeast to Jing Province following a failed plot to assassinate Cao Cao and restore power to the imperial dynasty de Crespigny ; de Crespigny The initial stages of the campaign were an unqualified success for Cao Cao, as the command of Jing Province had been substantially weakened and the Jing armies exhausted by conflict with Sun Quan to the south de Crespigny Factions had arisen supporting either of Liu Biao's two sons in a struggle for succession.
The younger son prevailed, and Liu Biao's dispossessed eldest son, Liu Qi , departed to assume a commandery , Jiangxia de Crespigny Liu Biao died of illness only a few weeks later, while Cao Cao was advancing from the north and, under these circumstances, Liu Biao's younger son and successor, Liu Cong , quickly surrendered.
Cao Cao thus captured a sizeable fleet and secured the naval base at Jiangling. This provided him with a key strategic military depot and forward base to harbour his ships de Crespigny , , When Jing Province fell, Liu Bei quickly fled south, accompanied by a refugee population of civilians and soldiers.
This disorganised exodus was pursued by Cao Cao's elite cavalry, and was surrounded and decisively beaten at the Battle of Changban.
Liu Bei escaped, however, and fled further east to Xiakou, where he liaised with Sun Quan's emissary Lu Su. By the time Zhuge Liang arrived, Cao Cao had already sent Sun Quan a letter boasting of commanding , men and hinting that he wanted Sun to surrender.
However, on separate occasions, Lu Su, Zhuge Liang, and Sun Quan's chief commander, Zhou Yu, all presented arguments to persuade Sun Quan to agree to the alliance against the northerners.
Sun Quan finally decided upon war, chopping off a corner of his desk during an assembly and stating: "Anyone who still dares argue for surrender will be [treated] the same as this desk.
Although Cao Cao had boasted command of , men, Zhou Yu estimated Cao Cao's actual troop strength to be closer to , Furthermore, this total included 80, impressed troops from the armies of the recently deceased Liu Biao, so the loyalty and morale of a large number of Cao Cao's force was uncertain Eikenberry With the 20, soldiers that Liu Bei had gathered, the alliance consisted of approximately 50, marines who were trained and prepared for battle de Crespigny , The combined Sun-Liu force sailed upstream from either Xiakou or Fankou to Red Cliffs, where they encountered Cao Cao's vanguard force.
Plagued by disease and low morale due to the series of forced marches they had undertaken on the prolonged southern campaign de Crespigny , Cao Cao's men could not gain an advantage in the small skirmish which ensued, so Cao Cao retreated to Wulin north of the Yangtze River and the allies pulled back to the south de Crespigny Cao Cao had chained his ships from stem to stern, possibly aiming to reduce seasickness in his navy, which was composed mostly of northerners who were not used to living on ships.
As Huang Gai's "defecting" squadron approached the midpoint of the river, the sailors applied fire to the ships before taking to small boats.
The unmanned fire ships, carried by the southeastern wind, sped towards Cao Cao's fleet and set it ablaze. A large number of men and horses either burned to death or drowned Chen c.
Following the initial shock, Zhou Yu and the allies led a lightly armed force to capitalise on the assault. The northern army was thrown into confusion and was utterly defeated.
Seeing the situation was hopeless, Cao Cao then issued a general order of retreat and destroyed a number of his remaining ships before withdrawing Chen c.
Cao Cao's army attempted a retreat along Huarong Road, including a long stretch passing through marshlands north of Dongting Lake.
Heavy rains had made the road so treacherous that many of the sick soldiers had to carry bundles of grass on their backs and use them to fill the road to allow the horsemen to cross.
Many of these soldiers drowned in the mud or were trampled to death in the effort. The allies, led by Zhou Yu and Liu Bei, gave chase over land and water until they reached Nan Commandery ; combined with famine and disease, this decimated Cao Cao's remaining forces.
Cao Cao then retreated north to his home base of Ye , leaving Cao Ren and Xu Huang to guard Jiangling, Yue Jin stationed in Xiangyang , and Man Chong in Dangyang Chen c.
The allied counterattack might have vanquished Cao Cao and his forces entirely. However, the crossing of the Yangtze River dissolved into chaos as the allied armies converged on the riverbank and fought over the limited number of ferries.
To restore order, a detachment led by Sun Quan's general Gan Ning established a bridgehead in Yiling to the north, and only a staunch rearguard action by Cao Ren prevented further catastrophe Eikenberry ; de Crespigny A combination of Cao Cao's strategic errors and the effectiveness of Huang Gai's ruse had resulted in the allied victory at the Battle of Red Cliffs.
Zhou Yu had previously observed that Cao Cao's generals and soldiers were mostly cavalry and infantry, and few had any experience in naval warfare.
Cao Cao also had little support among the people of Jing Province , and thus lacked a secure forward base of operations Eikenberry Despite the strategic acumen Cao Cao had displayed in earlier campaigns and battles, in this case he had simply assumed that numerical superiority would eventually defeat the Sun and Liu navy.
Cao's first tactical mistake was converting his massive army of infantry and cavalry into a marine corps and navy: with only a few days of drills before the battle, Cao Cao's troops were ravaged by sea-sickness and lack of experience on water.
Tropical diseases, to which the southerners were largely immune, were also rampant in Cao Cao's camps. Although numerous, Cao Cao's men were already exhausted by the unfamiliar environment and the extended southern campaign, as Zhuge Liang observed: "Even a powerful arrow at the end of its flight cannot penetrate a silk cloth" Military Documents A key advisor, Jia Xu , had recommended after the surrender of Liu Cong that the overtaxed armies be given time to rest and replenish before engaging the armies of Sun Quan and Liu Bei, but Cao Cao disregarded the advice Eikenberry Cao Cao's own thoughts regarding his failure at Red Cliffs suggest that he held his own actions and misfortunes responsible for the defeat, rather than the strategies utilised by his enemy during the battle: " It is out of all reason for Zhou Yu to take the credit for himself.
By the end of , the post Cao Cao had established at Jiangling fell to Zhou Yu. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang south of the Yangtze River.
Sun Quan's troops had suffered far greater casualties than Liu Bei's in the extended conflict against Cao Ren following the Battle of Red Cliffs and the death of Zhou Yu in resulted in a drastic weakening of Sun Quan's strength in Jing Province de Crespigny —92, Liu Bei also occupied Jing Province that Cao Cao had recently lost—a strategic and naturally fortified area on the Yangtze River that Sun Quan claimed for himself.
The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu southeastern China and dominion of the southern Yangtze River.
Never again would Cao Cao command so large a fleet as he had at Jiangling, nor would a similar opportunity to destroy his southern rivals present itself again de Crespigny The Battle of Red Cliffs and the capture of Jing Province by Liu Bei confirmed the separation of southern China from the northern heartland of the Yellow River valley and foreshadowed a north-south axis of hostility that would continue for centuries de Crespigny The precise location of the Red Cliffs battlefield has long been the subject of both popular and academic debates, but has never been conclusively established.
There are clear grounds for rejecting at least some of these proposals, but four alternative locations are still advocated. According to Zhang , many of the current debates stem from the fact that the course and length of the Yangtze River between Wuli and Wuhan has changed since the Sui and Tang dynasties Zhang The modern-day debate is also complicated by the fact that the names of some of the key locations have changed over the following centuries.
For example, although modern Huarong city is located in Hunan, south of the Yangtze, in the 3rd century the city of that name was due east of Jiangling, considerably north of the Yangtze Zhang ; de Crespigny 78n.
Historical records state that Cao Cao's forces retreated north across the Yangtze after the initial engagement at Red Cliffs, unequivocally placing the battle site on the south bank of the Yangtze.
For this reason, a number of sites on the north bank have been discounted by historians and geographers. Historical accounts also establish east and west boundaries for a stretch of the Yangtze which encompasses all possible sites for the battlefield.
The allied forces travelled upstream from either Fankou or Xiakou. Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean with northeast and southeast meanders , Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
The westernmost boundary is also clear, since Cao Cao's eastern advance from Jiangling included passing Baqiu present-day Yueyang , Hunan on the shore of Dongting Lake.
The battle must also have been downstream northeast of that location de Crespigny —57; Zhang Support for this conjecture arises largely due to the famous 11th-century poem " First Rhapsody on the Red Cliffs ", which equates the Huangzhou Hill with the battlefield location.
Excluding tone marks , the pinyin romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi", the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs.
This site is also on the north bank of the Yangtze, and is directly across from Fankou rather than upstream from it Zhang Moreover, if the allied Sun-Liu forces left from Xiakou rather than Fankou, as the oldest historical sources suggest,  then the hill in Huangzhou would have been downstream from the point of departure, a possibility which cannot be reconciled with historical sources.
Puqi, now named Chibi City, is perhaps the most widely accepted candidate. It is directly across the Yangtze from Wulin.
This argument was first proposed in the early Tang dynasty Zhang The battle of Red Cliffs occurred because Cao Cao was trying to gain lands further to the south of the Yangtze River in territories held by the allied Liu Bei and Sun Quan.
Both Liu Bei and Sun Quan as one allied force had managed to repel any advances by Cao Cao until this point. The Yangtze River was important for all three warlords because it was not only a natural boundary, but also a source of travel and food.
The first stage of which was the initial smaller scale skirmishes between the forces, skirmishes that saw Cao Cao retreat to the north western banks of the Yangtze.
Here Cao Cao had his ships moored in a manner to stop sea sickness from his troops, but also putting them in a less defensible formation. Seeing how the ships of Cao Cao were arranged a Military General for Sun Quan called Huang Gai sent a letter of surrender to Cao Cao, but this was simply a tactic to knock Cao Cao off guard.
In the mean time Huang Gai filled a squadron of ships with kindling and sent them towards Cao Cao as the opposing forces would be under the belief they were surrendering ships.
Cao Cao seeing defeat before him tried to retreat his army down a path called the Huarong Road. Unfortunately Mother Nature was not on his side as heavy rain fall made the path into a quagmire and many men either drowned in the watery mud or were trampled to death by their own horses.
In light of this Cao Cao retreated to his home. Although it is known the battle of Red Cliffs occurred on the banks of the Yangtze River, the actual place of battle has been a source of debate for some 1, years as no one has found physical evidence to confirm the location.
Currently there are three definite possibilities where the battle of Red Cliffs could have taken place; these are at Huangzhou, Wuchang or Chibi City, although some scholars point to a fourth unidentified location.BATTLE OF RED CLIFFS. Chibi, Red Cliff battle site The Battle of Red Cliff is one of the key episodes of “The Romance of the Three Kingdoms.” It is a real historical event, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, that took place on the Yangtze river in the winter of A.D. during the end of Han dynasty, 12 years before the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period. Interesting Facts about the Battle of Red Cliffs. Cao Cao boasted in a letter that he had , soldiers. However, general Zhou Yu of the south estimated that he had fewer forces, closer to around , There is a video game about the battle called Dragon Throne: Battle of Red Cliffs. The Battle of Red Cliffs (also known as the Battle of Chibi, CE) was the pivotal engagement between the forces of Northern China led by the warlord Cao Cao (l. CE) and the allied defenders of the south under the command of Liu Bei (d. CE) and Sun Quan (d. CE). The Battle of Chibi (Red Cliffs) between Cao Cao and the coalition of Liu Bei and Sun Quan took place at Red Cliffs (present-day northeast of Jiayu, Hubei Province) in AD Cao Cao whose courtesy name was Mengde was born in the Qiao County (present-day Bozhou, An- hui). The Battle of Red Cliffs (or Battle of Chibi) was fought during the Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty had ruled China for four centuries. They united China but they could not keep their power forever. The Battle of Red Cliffs was fought to try to reunite China.